Scalability is a key challenge that the Ethereum community is currently actively trying to solve. Ensuring limitless scalability is the only way to ensure mass adoption for the technology. And one of the most viable solutions to scalability that has emerged are Zero-Knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machines (zkEVMs).

ZkEVMs allow Ethereum to scale by batch processing large amounts of transactions off-chain in an environment optimized for execution before submitting a commitment of the state transition and validity proof to verify the computational integrity. In this article, we aim to explain the fundamentals of zkEVMs. Subsequently, we will delve into the reasons why zkEVMs are pivotal for scaling web3 and facilitating its widespread adoption. Lastly, we will look at some use cases of this exciting new technology. 

What are zkEVMs?

Before we understand zkEVMs, let’s familiarize ourselves with zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP), a key concept that forms the basis of zk tech. Essentially, a ZKP is a cryptographic proof that allows one party to prove to another party that they possess certain information without revealing that information. 

There are several algorithms available today to generate ZKP. The two most compelling ones are zk-STARKs and zk-SNARKs. Both are acronyms for the method by which the two parties prove their knowledge: zk-STARK stands for zero-knowledge scalable transparent argument of knowledge, and zk-SNARK stands for zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge. You can read more about these two technologies here.

Now let’s understand what a zkEVM is. A zkEVM is a zk-rollup that mimics Ethereum’s transaction execution environment, executes smart contracts and proves the correctness of execution using ZKPs. ZkEVMs recreate aspects of Ethereum’s design and thus provide an “Ethereum-like” experience for developers and users. When combined with rollup technology, a zkEVM provides unparalleled security and scalability for decentralized applications (dapps) and their users.

A zk-rollup reduces Ethereum’s computational loads by executing transactions in a separate environment known as a Layer 2 (L2). The rollups operator, called a sequencer, periodically bundles transactions on the L2 into a rollup batch and submits a proof of this to a smart contract on Layer 1 (L1) Ethereum. 

Why Do We Need to Scale Ethereum?

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a distributed computing environment that runs on the Ethereum network. It is crucial to the network as it allows for the execution of smart contracts and powers the various dapps that operate on Ethereum. 

As more users have gravitated towards the Ethereum network, some network limitations have led to high gas prices, or the fee a user pays to use the network. As a result, the Ethereum network provides the benefits of security and decentralization, but trades scalability in the process as every node on the network needs to re-execute transactions and store the world state. 

Some solutions that have emerged to address Ethereum’s scalability issues are sidechains and rollups. Sidechains act like independent blockchains running parallel to L1 Ethereum, while rollups execute transactions offchain, bundle them and post them to the L1. A criticism of these solutions remains that they do not scale Ethereum directly, however, they allow developers to run Ethereum dapps on an off-chain layer that is scalable, while being a low-cost option for users. 

Not all scaling solutions are created equal. Take, for instance, the case of sidechains, which lack the security provided by the Ethereum network. Consequently, the safety of users' funds hinges on the integrity of the validators associated with the sidechain. In a dire situation, if the validator set becomes compromised, there is a significant risk of funds being illicitly appropriated from a bridge or users being denied access to legitimately owned funds through transaction censorship.

Zk-rollups have quickly become one of the most effective ways to solve Ethereum’s scalability issues. Since they are “zero-knowledge”, they only need a validity proof and not the entire transaction’s data. This ensures they need less block space, making the verification process quicker and cheaper than executing the transaction on an L1.

What are some zkEVM Projects in the Ecosystem?

A number of L2 projects have emerged in the Ethereum ecosystem over the past couple of years. However, we will focus on four most notable ones: 

zkSync Era

ZkSync Era, developed by Matter Labs, is an EVM-compatible zkVM supporting general-purpose applications. It is an upgrade to zkSync Lite, and provides low-fee ERC-20 token and ETH transfers, swaps, and NFT minting/trading. 

ZkSync Era adopts a compiler-based approach for EVM compatibility – it uses a special compiler to convert the high-level programming language such as Solidity or Vyper into a format suitable for the zkSync zkEVM. This change leads to some incompatibility with Ethereum but offers benefits like improved proof generation times and lower costs for end-users. 

ZkSync Era opened on Ethereum mainnet to all users on March 24, 2023.


StarkWare is the developer of two distinct zk products: StarkEx, a permissioned scaling service powering applications like dYdX, Sorare, ImmutableX, and, and StarkNet, a general-purpose rollup tailored for executing Cairo programming language applications.

Notably, StarkWare is credited with popularizing "validiums," which function as rollup-like structures with off-chain data availability. By ensuring correctness through validity proofs, validiums offer superior security compared to other scaling solutions with off-chain data availability.

StarkNet launched on Ethereum mainnet on April 25, 2023.

Polygon zkEVM

Polygon zkEVM positions itself as an “EVM-equivalent zkEVM”, which refers to a zkVM that can understand and process the same instructions as the Ethereum Virtual Machine. 

STARKs are used for generating proofs of computational integrity in the Polygon zkEVM, although a SNARK (generated using PLONK) is used for L1 verification purposes. This combination provides a “best of both worlds” scenario wherein STARK is used to generate proofs quickly while a final SNARK proof that attests to the correctness of the STARK proof is used to reduce verification costs. 

Polygon zkEVM debuted on Ethereum mainnet on March 27, 2023.


Linea is a developer-friendly Type-2 zkEVM developed by the research and development team at Consensys. It is an EVM-equivalent zk-rollup solution that is fully compatible with existing tooling and infrastructure. This allows developers to develop as if they were doing so on Ethereum mainnet (Linea uses ETH for gas payments, for example), at a fraction of the cost of building on Ethereum. 

As a Type 2 zkEVM, Linea prioritizes compatibility with all Ethereum applications and infrastructure above everything else. It allows for seamless integration with EVM wallets (MetaMask), developer tooling (Truffle, Remix, Brownie, Foundry, Hardhat, et al.), and critical infrastructure like node providers (Infura) and execution clients (Besu).

Linea offers the benefits of being an Ethereum scaling solution – low fees, fast confirmations, high number of transactions per second – while avoiding the downsides some of the competing projects may have. For example, delayed finality, high costs, and poor security.

In addition, Linea provides an EVM-equivalent infrastructure so that users can build new dapps while benefiting from Ethereum’s security, decentralization, and developer experience.

Linea launched on Ethereum mainnet was announced on July 11, 2023, by beginning to onboard its launch partners on July 11th, 2023. It opened the network to all users on July 18th, 2023. 

What are the Applications of zkEVMs?

DeFi: Traders and investors stand to benefit from enhanced capital efficiency and improved liquidity access with minimal withdrawal delays on a zkEVM rollup. The exponential growth in cost savings within the DeFi space on a zkEVM is particularly noteworthy since there is no need to compensate liquidity providers for expedited exits.

In addition, the optimization of a zkEVM for scalability translates to blazingly fast and cost-effective decentralized computer operations, making it an ideal choice for peer-to-peer payments and institutional settlements. Ethereum's highly decentralized network, with over 500,000 validators and continuing growth, ensures robust transaction finality guarantees.

Gaming: On-chain gaming applications that handle a significant volume of transactions greatly benefit from the scalability advantages offered by zkEVMs. In addition to the previously mentioned benefits, on-chain gamers enjoy reduced costs per transaction due to the data compression capabilities inherent in zkEVMs.

NFTs: The exceptional combination of ultra-low gas fees and high transactions per second on a zkEVM chain makes it an ideal platform for large-scale NFT minting and trading. Furthermore, the seamless user experience of transferring NFTs to Ethereum L1 is ensured by the immediate finalization of withdrawals once the submitted proof is accepted by the on-chain verifier contract.

Social Media: Another area where zkEVMs are proving useful is social media. Dapps such as Lineaster, a decentralized social media platform that is built by Lens Protocol and deployed on Linea. Lineaster is able to leverage the high throughput and low gas fees enabled by Linea.  

Why is Multi-prover zkEVM the Future?

In the case of a multi-prover zkEVM, each transaction posted to an L2 is proved by multiple independent provers. That is, one batch of transactions could have many validity proofs confirming the integrity of the transaction data contained in that batch. 

To make this possible, we need multiple Type-2 EVM equivalent zkEVMs that are performant and can collaborate with each other. 

There are many benefits of a multi-prover zkEVM, a key one being that it reduces the risk of failure as there is no single point of attack. Another benefit is that it encourages innovation in prover schemes. 

Vitalik refers to most rollups solutions available today as ones on “training wheels”, meaning that a project still relies on multi-sig to ensure a particular outcome in the case of bugs in the code. They do not yet rely fully on the zk-proof tech. Linea is dedicated to removing these training wheels and the multi-prover solution is key in helping Linea achieve that goal.


  • What is a zkEVM?
    A zkEVM is a zk-rollup that mimics Ethereum’s transaction execution environment, executes smart contracts and proves the correctness of execution using zero-knowledge proofs.

Why are zkEVMs important for Ethereum scalability?
Zk-rollups have quickly become one of the most effective ways to solve Ethereum’s scalability issues. Since they are “zero-knowledge”, they only need a validity proof and not the entire transaction’s data. This ensures they need less block space, making the verification process quicker and cheaper than executing the transaction on an L1.