1 Executive Summary

This report presents the results of our engagement with Horizon Games to review the security of their smart contracts for the SkyWeaver game.

The review was conducted over one week, from April 1st to April 10th by Sergii Kravchenko. A total of 5 person-days were spent.

During this week, I focused primarily on factories that produce new cards/items/tokens, trust-related issues, the RNG mechanism, and re-entrancy attacks (especially within ERC-1155 token callbacks).

The review identified 7 issues of different severities (see section 4).

The allotted time for the review (1 person-week) was deemed insufficient from the start to do a comprehensive audit of the whole system. As such, some compromises had to be made on the completeness of the review.

2 Scope

Our review is focused on the commit hash bde0c184db6168bf86656a48b12d5747950b54d9 of https://github.com/horizon-games/SkyWeaver-contracts repository. The list of files in scope can be found in the Appendix.

3 Security Specification

This section describes, from a security perspective, the expected behavior of the system under the review. It is not a substitute for documentation.

3.1 Actors

The relevant actors are listed below with their respective abilities:

  • System owners - there are multiple contracts in the system that have an owner that potentially can be different addresses in different contracts, but logically it’s the same owner (Horizon admins).
    • SilverCardsFactory
      • can register/deregister card IDs.
      • can change the price.
      • withdraw arcadeum coins from the contract.
    • EternalHeroesFactory
      • can register/deregister item IDs.
      • cannot change price, pricing is set during the contract creation.
      • withdraw arcadeum coins from the contract.
    • GoldCardsFactory
      • can register/deregister card IDs.
      • can change the price.
      • can change refund.
      • can change rngDelay.
    • WeaveFactory
      • can mint weave for anyone, minting is limited per time. The rate is fixed and cannot be changed.
    • SWSupplyManager
      • can manage factories.
      • can set maximum supply for each token ID.
      • can lock some token IDs.
  • Token holders - anyone who has enough tokens (arcadeum coins or weave) can buy cards/items from factories.
  • Anyone - can mine gold card for any already committed gold order and recommit.

3.2 Trust Model

In any smart contract system, it’s important to identify what trust is expected/required between various actors. For this review, we established the following trust model:

The system has owners that have some centralized power, like changing prices/refunds. From other perspectives, the system is pretty much permissionless for the users, anyone with tokens can buy/melt items for a predefined/limited price.

Random number generation is not completely trustless; it may potentially be manipulated by miners. However, unless gold cards become expensive, there is no clear incentive for miners to do so.

3.3 Important Security Properties

The following is a non-exhaustive list of security properties that were discovered during this review:

  • To decrease trust assumptions, owner can lock some token IDs in SWSupplyManager to ensure that only already existing factories with already existing permissions can mint items with these IDs.

  • Sometimes price can be changed by the admin using a front-running technique. In that case, users have mechanisms that allows them to cancel their order if the price is too high. Also, the owner can modify the gold cards list between committing to mine a gold card and actually mining it.

  • In some factories prices include decimals, in some - not.

4 Issues

Each issue has an assigned severity:

  • Minor issues are subjective in nature. They are typically suggestions around best practices or readability. Code maintainers should use their own judgment as to whether to address such issues.
  • Medium issues are objective in nature but are not security vulnerabilities. These should be addressed unless there is a clear reason not to.
  • Major issues are security vulnerabilities that may not be directly exploitable or may require certain conditions in order to be exploited. All major issues should be addressed.
  • Critical issues are directly exploitable security vulnerabilities that need to be fixed.

4.1 Gold order size should be limited Major ✓ Addressed


Addressed in horizon-games/SkyWeaver-contracts#9 by adding a limit for cold cards amount in one order.


When a user submits an order to buy gold cards, it’s possible to buy a huge amount of cards. _commit function uses less gas than mineGolds, which means that the user can successfully commit to buying this amount of cards and when it’s time to collect them, mineGolds function may run out of gas because it iterates over all card IDs and mints them:


// Mint gold cards
skyweaverAssets.batchMint(_order.cardRecipient, _ids, amounts, "");


Limit a maximum gold card amount in one order.

4.2 Price and refund changes may cause failures Major ✓ Addressed


Addressed in horizon-games/SkyWeaver-contracts#3.

Fix involves burning the weave when the commit occurs instead of when the minting of the gold cards occur.


Price and refund for gold cards are used in 3 different places: commit, mint, refund.

Weave tokens spent during the commit phase


function _commit(uint256 _weaveAmount, GoldOrder memory _order)
  // Check if weave sent is sufficient for order
  uint256 total_cost = _order.cardAmount.mul(goldPrice).add(_order.feeAmount);
  uint256 refund_amount = _weaveAmount.sub(total_cost); // Will throw if insufficient amount received

but they are burned rngDelay blocks after


// Burn the non-refundable weave
uint256 weave_to_burn = (_order.cardAmount.mul(goldPrice)).sub(_order.cardAmount.mul(goldRefund));
weaveContract.burn(weaveID, weave_to_burn);

If the price is increased between these transactions, mining cards may fail because it should burn more weave tokens than there are tokens in the smart contract. Even if there are enough tokens during this particular transaction, someone may fail to melt a gold card later.

If the price is decreased, some weave tokens will be stuck in the contract forever without being burned.


Store goldPrice and goldRefund in GoldOrder.

4.3 Re-entrancy attack allows to buy EternalHeroes cheaper Major ✓ Addressed


Addressed in horizon-games/SkyWeaver-contracts#4.

Minting tokens before sending refunds. Subsequent PR will also add re-entrancy guard for all shops.

And re-entrancy guard added here: horizon-games/SkyWeaver-contracts#10


When buying eternal heroes in _buy function of EternalHeroesFactory contract, a buyer can do re-entracy before items are minted.


uint256 refundAmount = _arcAmount.sub(total_cost);
if (refundAmount > 0) {
  arcadeumCoin.safeTransferFrom(address(this), _recipient, arcadeumCoinID, refundAmount, "");

// Mint tokens to recipient
factoryManager.batchMint(_recipient, _ids, amounts_to_mint, "");

Since price should increase after every N items are minted, it’s possible to buy more items with the old price.


Add re-entrancy protection or mint items before sending the refund.

4.4 Supply limitation misbehaviors Medium ✓ Addressed


Logic remains unchanged as it’s the desired behaviour. But the issue is mitigated in horizon-games/SkyWeaver-contracts#5 by renaming the term “currentSupply” to “currentIssuance” and “maxSupply” to “maxIssuance” for maximum clarity.


In SWSupplyManager contract, the owner can limit supply for any token ID by setting maxSupply:


function setMaxSupplies(uint256[] calldata _ids, uint256[] calldata _newMaxSupplies) external onlyOwner() {
  require(_ids.length == _newMaxSupplies.length, "SWSupplyManager#setMaxSupply: INVALID_ARRAYS_LENGTH");

  // Can only *decrease* a max supply
  // Can't set max supply back to 0
  for (uint256 i = 0; i < _ids.length; i++ ) {
    if (maxSupply[_ids[i]] > 0) {
        0 < _newMaxSupplies[i] && _newMaxSupplies[i] < maxSupply[_ids[i]],
        "SWSupplyManager#setMaxSupply: INVALID_NEW_MAX_SUPPLY"
    maxSupply[_ids[i]] = _newMaxSupplies[i];

  emit MaxSuppliesChanged(_ids, _newMaxSupplies);

The problem is that you can set maxSupply that is lower than currentSupply, which would be an unexpected state to have.

Also, if some tokens are burned, their currentSupply is not decreasing:


function burn(
  uint256 _id,
  uint256 _amount)
  _burn(msg.sender, _id, _amount);

This unexpected behaviour may lead to burning all of the tokens without being able to mint more.


Properly track currentSupply by modifying it in burn function. Consider having a following restriction require(_newMaxSupplies[i] > currentSupply[_ids[i]]) in setMaxSupplies function.

4.5 Owner can modify gold cards distribution after someone committed to buy Medium  Won't Fix


The client decided not to fix this issue with the following comment:

This issue will be addressed by having the owner be a delayed multisig, such that users will have time to witness a change in the distribution that is about to occur.


When a user commits to buying a gold card (and sends weave), there is an expected distribution of possible outcomes. But the problem is that owner can change distribution by calling registerIDs and deregisterIDs functions.

Additionally, owner can buy any specific gold card avoiding RNG mechanism. It can be done by deleting all the unwanted cards, mining the card and then returning them back. And if owner removes every card from the list, nothing is going to be minted.


There are a few possible recommendations:

  • Fix a distribution for every order after commit(costly solution).
  • Make it an explicit part of the trust model (increases trust to the admins).
  • Cancel pending orders if gold cards IDs are changed.

4.6 A buyer of a gold card can manipulate randomness Medium  Won't Fix


The client decided not to fix this issue with the following comment:

We hereby assume that Horizon will always be willing to mine gold cards even at a loss considering the amount of gold cards that can be created per week is limited. If in practice this becomes a problem, we can upgrade this factory.


When a user is buying a gold card, _commit function is called. After rngDelay number of blocks, someone should call mineGolds function to actually mint the card. If this function is not called during 255 blocks (around 1 hour), a user should call recommit to try to mint a gold card again with a new random seed. So if the user doesn’t like a card that’s going to be minted (randomly), user can try again until a card is good. The issue is medium because anyone can call mineGolds function in order to prevent this behaviour. But it costs money and there’s no incentive for anyone to do so.


Create a mechanism to avoid this kind of manipulation. For example, make sure there is an incentive for someone to call mineGolds function

4.7 A refund is sent to recipient Medium  Won't Fix


The client decided not to fix this issue with the following comment:

It’s unlikely users will send inexact amount since price is fixed. If this becomes a problem in practice we can re-deploy the factory with this added functionality.


When a refund is sent, it’s sent to recipient. In case if a user wants to keep game items and money separate, it makes sense to send a refund back to from address.


Since there may be different use cases, consider adding refundAddress to order structure.

4.8 Randomness can be manipulated by miners Minor  Won't Fix


The client decided not to fix this issue with the following comment:

For miners to be able to profit, they would have to forfeit multiple blocks and the desired gold cards would have to be very expensive in the first place (e.g. in the $10k) for it to be worth it for them. In practice, there are also other oppotunities for miners that offer better returns, but if it ever turned out to be a problem, we would see it coming and we can then use a more secure and expensive source of RNG as the gold cards would be very expensive and the additional cost would be worth it.


Random number generator uses future blockhash as a seed. So it’s possible for miners to manipulate that value in order to get a better gold card. The issue is minor because it only makes sense if the cost of the card is high enough to do the extra work on the miner side.


Use better RNG algorithms if the price of gold cards is high enough for the miners to start manipulation.

Appendix 1 - Files in Scope

This audit covered the following files:

File SHA-1 hash
shop/EternalHeroesFactory.sol ba8e5e4
shop/GoldCardsFactory.sol 1240d2c
shop/SWSupplyManager.sol f9c1825
shop/SilverCardsFactory.sol 23a3cb2
shop/WeaveFactory.sol a4058da
tokens/SkyweaverAssets.sol 1e1f884
tokens/SkyweaverCurrencies.sol 8a5ebc8
abstract/AbstractERC1155MintBurn.sol 5d2e041
utils/Ownable.sol 15e6d2b

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